Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, Causes, Risk Factors, Prevention and Treatment

           Diabetes is a life long chronic disease in which there is a rise in the level of sugar(glucose) in blood enormously over a prolonged period. This particular disease affects millions of people across the world.

          People’s health depends on the level of glucose in your body. It is the source of energy of your body and helps in building their muscles and tissue. If the level of glucose is high in the blood, people may suffer from many health issues.

Causes of diabetes:

          Insulin is a hormone that regulates the level of blood sugar in the body. The pancreas produces more insulin when the level of sugar in the blood rises.

          Whenever people eat foods, it digests and breaks down into glucose. Stomach and intestine absorb the glucose and then enter into the bloodstream. This glucose is again absorbed by the muscles cells for use with help of insulin. So, pancreas release insulin to maintain the level of glucose in the blood.

          Diabetes occurs when there is either lack of insulin or due to the presence of some factor that opposes the action of insulin in the body. This lack or insufficient action of insulin will result in raising the level of glucose in the blood.

          In order to lower down the glucose in the blood, the kidney reacts and try to flush out the glucose. Because of this reason, patients with diabetes urinate frequently. As they urinate frequently a person with diabetes will feel more thirsty and drink lots of water.

1. Type 1 diabetes:

          In type 1 diabetes, the body organ(pancreas) stop producing insulin at all. This happens due to the destruction of B-cells in the body. Because of this glucose in blood unable to get access to the cells. This lead to the rise of glucose in the blood enormously. It occurs in only about 10% of all cases and can develop at any age.

2. Type 2 diabetes:

          In type 2 diabetes, either the body is not producing quite enough insulin or insulin is not working properly. People with obesity are more prone to type 2 diabetes, insulin hormone unable to make way for glucose to enter the cells because of fat block the cell walls. As a result, the level of glucose in the blood highly increase. On the other side, in order to lower down the glucose level in blood, the pancreas produces more and more insulin.

          Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes occurs and contribute about 90% of all cases. This type of diabetes is more preventable compared to type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more common for older people who are above the age of 40 years.

Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes:

          The symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are almost the same. The only difference between the two is that type 1 diabetes shows symptoms quickly while type 2 diabetes may not show quickly or take some time.

          Some of the signs and symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, frequent urination, tiredness, blurred vision, slow healing, thrust or genetical itching and unexplained weight loss.

Some factors that increase the risk of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes:

1. Dietary factors:

          The dietary factors of type 1 diabetes include low consumption of vitamin D, baby’ early exposure to cow milk and exposure of the child to cereals before 4 months of age. But these factors show negative in all the cases till now.

2. Presence of anti-insulin autoantibodies:

          In most of the cases of type 1 diabetes, there is the presence of autoantibodies in the patient’s body. This autoantibodies destroy the B-cells and make the organ produce no insulin further.

Type 2 diabetes:

1. Family history:

          Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1, it has a strong link with heredity. If a person’s parents have type 2 diabetes, the person also has a high risk of type 2 diabetes.

2. Age:

          Older people are more prone to type 2 diabetes. This may be due to older people tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and weight gain as they age. But nowadays reports shows that there is an increase in the number of affecting type 2 diabetes to children, adolescents and young adults.

3. Overweight:

          Overweight is the most common among the other factors. The more people have fats the more increase of sugar in the blood. Because fats shield the walls of the cells and block the glucose from entering the cells making the insulin inactive.

4. Inactivity:

          The risk of type 2 diabetes increase if one is less active. The more people are less active the more weight they will gain because the extra glucose in the body will store as fat. And physical activeness also helps the cells more sensitive to insulin.

5. Race:

          Type 2 diabetes is prevalence particularly high in Asian and African-Caribbean people. The reasons why certain race has a higher risk of type 2 diabetes is not clear.

How to prevent diabetes:

1. Eat a healthy diet:

          Foods are important to prevent you from diabetes. Always try to depend on foods that have low fat, calories and high fibre. Keep more focus on fruits, vegetables and grains.

2. Exercise daily:

          Exercise will use up the daily glucose produced by the body and also burn fats. One other side, it helps in the improvement of the hormone release cycle. Thus reduce the risk of diabetes.

3. Lose your weight:

          Overweight or obesity is the most common cause of diabetes. In order to prevent from diabetes, you need to lose your weight and keep yourself healthy and fit.

Treatment of diabetes:

          Type 1 diabetes treatment includes insulin injection or use of insulin pump, regular blood sugar check up and counting of carbohydrate. On the other hand, type-2 diabetes treatment includes monitoring of blood sugar, medication and insulin therapy.

          For type 1 diabetes pancreas transplant is also an option for treatment. With the pancreas transplant, a person will no longer need insulin therapy. But, a pancreas transplant is not always successful and the whole procedures pose a serious risk.

          Eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise is also a part of the treatment of diabetes along with medication. Exercise helps in lowering sugar level and weight loss.

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