Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death and disability for both men and women. Reports have shown that the number of death due to cardiovascular disease is rising in the developing country.
Coronary heart disease and stroke are the most common heart disease that kills approximately 370,000 people every year.
People having cardiovascular disease were four times more likely to report poor health than those without. In fact, it has a major impact on quality of life.
But about 90% of cardiovascular disease is preventable. The prevention of the disease includes healthy eating, exercising, avoiding tobacco, etc.
What is Cardiovascular disease?
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of disease that involve heart and blood vessels and covers all diseases that affect the heart and circulatory system of the body. It includes coronary heart disease (angina and heart attack), hypertension (high blood pressure), stroke and peripheral vascular disease.
The most common cause of cardiovascular disease is the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the process whereby fatty deposits form in the arteries, making them narrow down and possibly block completely. And when atherosclerosis damages the major arteries in the body it can cause heart attack, stroke and periphery vascular disease.
Sometimes, the body sent a type of white blood cell to clean up the fatty deposits but the cells get stuck at the affected area.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease:
Age comes under unchangeable and uncontrollable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is true that the older you are, the more likely you are to develop cardiovascular disease.
Women of childbearing age are at lesser risk of developing heart disease than men. But once the menopause is passed, women also have a risk is similar to that of man’s.
Heredity is also one of the unchangeable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It means, if your parents, brothers and sisters developed cardiovascular disease i.e, heart attack or stroke before the age of 55-60 years, then your risk is increased.
4. Ethnic origin:
The risk of developing the cardiovascular disease is higher in a certain race. The rate of coronary disease mortality, premature death is very much higher in African-American and compare to whites. People of Asian origin also have a high risk of causing cardiovascular disease.
5. High blood pressure:
High Blood pressure is one of the risk factors for coronary heart disease. Blood pressure is the force that blood makes against the walls of the arteries. High blood pressure over a long time increase strain on the major organs such as heart brain. Due to the increase in strain, the blood vessels will get damage and will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
There is no physical signs and symptoms of high blood pressure in most people. In order to detect earlier and prevent, a regular checkup with the doctor is very important.
Smoking not only causes cancer and many other health issues but also increase the risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to both mother and fetus.
It doubles the risk of causing a stroke. So, it is always better to stop smoking because it will reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
7. Being overweight or obese:
Overweight or obesity increase the risk of developing many health problems such as heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc. So, reduce your body weight a healthy weight. Fluctuating of your weight from your healthy weight is harmful to your health.
A BMI calculator will give you whether you are overweight or not. It is the measurement of body weight in relation to your height. If the measured value of BMI is between 18-25, then it is considered as healthy.
8. Drinking alcohol:
Overdrinking of alcohol damage the health and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease leading to high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke. Longtime heavy consumption of alcohol can damage your heart permanently.
Drinking alcohol in excess amount regularly will increase the risk of developing many types of cancer, liver disease and can also cause diabetes.
9. Unhealthy eating:
Unhealthy eating will always put you in trouble whereas eating a healthy diet will reduce the cholesterol level and lower blood pressure in your body keeping you healthy. Due to this, a healthy diet is important for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
10. Physical inactiveness:
People who are inactive have twice the risk of developing coronary heart disease compared with active people. These people need to take some exercise otherwise they will definitely suffer from many health issues. Regular exercise is the best option for such people.
Sign and symptoms of heart attack:
1. Sudden chest pain which may feel like tightness, heaviness, pressure, fullness or squeezing. This can range from mild to severe and develop for over one minute.
2. Pain in neck, throat, shoulder, arm, back, hand, etc.
3. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.
4. Nausea or vomiting, sweating, dizziness, heartburn and collapse.
Sign and symptoms of stroke:
1. Sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body.
2. Trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech.
3. Loss or blurred of vision in one or both eye.
4. Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, unconsciousness or difficulty swallowing.
Sign and symptoms of Peripheral vascular disease:
1. Pain, numbness and heaviness in the legs, buttock during exercise.
2. Cramping, slow healing and painful sores and a weak or no pulse in the legs and feet.
3. Poor nail and hair growth on the toes and legs.
4. Pale skin colour change.
5. Erectile dysfunction in men.
How to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease:
1. Keep a healthy diet plan, take regular exercise and don’t smoke.
2. Take medicines regularly to lower down the cholesterol, blood pressure and risk of clots.
3. You can also undergo a surgery to reopen, repair or replace the damaged arteries.